Simultaneously, all Russian-Germans were recalled from active army service, fearing that "Russian Germans" could desert to serve in the German army. My grandfather was sent to work in a mine. He rarely shared any memories about this horrible period of his life, trying to forget about all that. He stayed a year in the camp, and was caved in twice in the mine. People died like flies. My grandfather told us that he had mentally said good-bye to his wife, children and his life.
Source: Harold J. Goldberg, (ed.), Europe in Flames: Understanding World War II (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2011), p. 111 .